Wednesday, May 31, 2006

a An algorithm is a series of instructions or steps which when performed correctly will solve a problem in a finite time.
b Algorithms can be used to describe simple tasks or actions that you do each day.
c Algorithm description is commonly used in recipes, do-it-yourself manuals, and knitting manuals.
d Each step in the algorithm must be simple enough so that it can be easily carried out.
e For the algorithm to work in all situations, the steps must be performed in a particular sequence or order.
f Before an algorithm can be written, the problem must be fully understood.
g How you arrive at a solution depends very much on past experience.
h After the algorithm has been written it needs to be tested or checked.
i If the results are wrong it is modified or discarded.
j There is usually more than one correct algorithm.
2 An algorithm consists of a finite number of steps which, when followed, will solve a problem. An algorithm must have a definite start or beginning and a single end. The steps of an algorithm must be performed in a particular order for it to work.
3 Algorithms are created to solve problems. Algorithms provide a ‘recipe’ for solving the problem.
4 Algorithms can be used to solve most types of problem.
5 Algorithms are commonly found in recipe books, knitting patterns, do-it-yourself instructions, instruction books and instructions that come with systems such as automatic telephone systems.
6 The problem needs to be analysed and understood before an algorithm can be written to solve it.
7 The inputs and outputs affect how you arrive at a solution.
8 The algorithm needs to be tested after it has been written to make sure that it works properly. If it doesn’t work properly it will need to be changed and tested until it does work.
a get book
open to first page
read book
close book
b get bread
get butter
put bread in toaster
remove toast from toaster
butter toast
10 The algorithms will vary from student to student, but should include these basic steps:
get two slices of bread
get butter
get cheese
butter one side of each slice of bread
put cheese on buttered side of one slice of bread
put other slice of bread butter side down on cheese
cut sandwich
choose CD
take CD out of case
turn CD player on
put CD in CD player
press start button
listen to CD
when CD is finished, remove it from CD player
put CD back in case
turn off CD player
get bicycle pump
screw pump onto tyre valve
pump tyre up
unscrew pump from tyre valve
put pump away
Cut a slice of bread from the loaf
Place in the toaster
Turn on the toaster
Wait three minutes
Remove the toast
Butter it
Add a slice of cheese

Turning on the toaster can be placed in any of three places.


Set the total to zero
Sort coins by size
Count the 5c coins, call the result N
Add 5 x N to the total
Count the 10c coins, call the result "whatever you like"
Add 10 x "whatever" to the total
Count the 20c coins, call the result X
Add 20 x X to the total
Count the 50c coins, call the result Y
Add 50 x Y to the total
Divide by 100
Display the total


Tuesday, May 30, 2006

Intro: My aim is to find out the relationship between the speed of someone's typing and the speed of their handwriting

Hypothesis: Typing does affect handwriting speed.
As you learn to type faster, your brain adjusts to accepting more information at once, and processing it, so you learn to memorise more, and write it down faster as a result.

Background research:

Materials - Paper, pen, computer + keyboard, stop watch
Investigation set up?

Tiaan heard a sharp intake of breath, a door banged and the voices were cut off. She headed in the other direction, out behind the skeet houses. Ten thousand gold tells was the worth of a town.

Timed kb at 30 sec.

3 tries at keyboard, then one with handwriting.

+1 sec for each mistake on keyboard.

Handwriting has to be legible.

Reliability - redo if results are skewy
Controlling variables - use same pen/paper, same type of keyboard/screen and passage of writing

risk assessment- maybe rsi, but a short burst of activity, not long prolonged activity


at home


conclusion: i am right. or wrong.

Bibliography: Google, wiki, books.

Thursday, May 25, 2006

a The abstract structure of data is independent of the computer system in which it is stored.
b The storage of data as a magnetic pattern on a disk is an example of the physical structure of stored data.
c The Boolean data structure could be represented as one bit within a computer system.
d Data of the same type can be represented as an array.
e Related data with different data types may be represented by a record.
f Each element within an array may be individually accessed by using a(n) index.
g A character is the smallest unit of data normally used by a person.
h A file in which data items must be accessed in order is known as a sequential file.
i A floating point number is often represented by two parts: a mantissa and an exponent.
j A string can be pictured as a one-dimensional array of characters.
k Each individual data item within a record is known as a field.
2 A simple data type contains one data item per identifier. The most common of these types are Boolean, integer, real numbers, character and string. Two other special simple data types are date and currency. When related data items are to be stored, we use a structured data type. The simplest of these data types are the array and the record. Arrays contain related data items of the same data type, and records contain related data items which may be of a different data type.
Integer 18537
a real number
b date
c string
d real number
e array of real numbers
f Boolean
g integer
h record

Wednesday, May 24, 2006

a The binary system of numbers is used to store values in a computer.
b We normally count using the decimal number system.
c One digit in a binary number is called a bit.
d Because binary numbers are difficult to work with, a system called octal, which contains the digits 0 to 7, is used.
e The hexadecimal number system uses the letters A to F to represent some of the digits.

2 Digital computers store data as zeros and ones. Since there are only two digits in this system, it is known as the binary number system. The binary number system is inconvenient to use, so the octal system based on 8 and the hexadecimal number system based on 16 are also used by programmers.
a 10012
b 1 00012
c 1 11102
d 101 10012
e 1111 10002
a 118
b 218
c 368
d 1318
e 3708
a 916
b 1116
c 1E16
d 5916
e F816
a 510
b 1310
c 20310
a 1310
b 3110
c 13410
d 51110
a 2110
b 7510
c 19210
d 27010
a 11012 , D16
b 1 11112 , 1F16
c 1000 01102 , 8616
d 1 1111 11112 , 1FF16
10 Binary numbers were chosen because it is relatively easy to construct devices that can distinguish between on (1) and off (0) and also process strings of pulses.
11 Long binary strings are unwieldy. It is much easier for humans to work with the shorter strings that hexadecimal notation produces.

Saturday, May 20, 2006


Tuesday, May 09, 2006

The Holocaust is generally regarded as the systematic slaughter of not only 6 million Jews, (two-thirds of the total European Jewish population), the primary victims, but also 5 million others, approximately 11 million individuals wiped off the Earth by the Nazi regime and its collaborators. It is hard to grasp the idea that it isn't just 11 million deaths, but 11 million people whose lives were cut off because of racism and hate, all in a period of 11 years (1933-1945). There are actually two main phases to the Holocaust, the period between 1933 and 1939, the Nazi rise, and the period between 1939 and 1945, the period of war, or more specifically, World War II. The first concentration camp opened in January 1933, when the Nazis came to power, and continued to run until the end of the war and the Third Reich: May 8, 1945.

The Holocaust was geographically widespread and systematically conducted in virtually all areas of Nazi-occupied territory, where Jews and other victims were targeted in what are now 35 separate European nations, and sent to labor camps in some nations or extermination camps in others. The mass killing was at its worst in Central and Eastern Europe, which had more than 7 million Jews in 1939; about 5 million Jews were killed there, including 3 million in Poland and over 1 million in the Soviet Union. Hundreds of thousands also died in the Netherlands, France, Belgium, Yugoslavia, and Greece.

Documented evidence suggests that the Nazis planned to carry out their 'final solution' in other regions if they were conquered, such as the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland. [6]. The extermination continued in different parts of Nazi-controlled territory until the end of World War II, only completely ending when the Allies entered Germany itself and forced the Nazis to surrender in May 1945

The Holocaust was carried out without any mercy or reprieve even for children or babies, and victims were often made to suffer before finally being killed. Nazis carried out cruel and deadly medical experiments on prisoners, including children.

The victims of the Holocaust were Jews, Serbs, Poles, Russians, Communists, homosexuals, Roma (also known as gypsies), the mentally ill and the physically disabled, intelligentsia and political activists, Jehovah's Witnesses, some Catholic and Protestant clergy, trade unionists, psychiatric patients, some Africans, common criminals and people labeled as "enemies of the state". These victims all perished alongside one another in the camps, according to the extensive documentation left behind by the Nazis themselves (written and photographed), eyewitness testimony (by survivors, perpetrators, and bystanders), and the statistical records of the various countries under occupation.

Starting in 1933, the Nazis set up concentration camps within Germany, many of which were established by local authorities, to hold political prisoners and "undesirables". These early concentration camps were eventually consolidated into centrally run camps, and by 1939, six large concentration camps, located in Poland, had been established. After 1939, with the beginning of the Second World War, the concentration camps increasingly became places where the enemies of the Nazis, including Jews and POWs, were either killed or forced to act as slave laborers, and kept undernourished and tortured.

During the War, concentration camps for Jews and other "undesirables" were spread throughout Europe, with new camps being created near centers of dense "undesirable" populations, often focusing on areas with large Jewish, Polish intelligentsia, communist, or Roma populations. Most of the camps were located in the area of General Government in Poland, but there were camps in every country occupied by the Nazis. The transportation of prisoners was often carried out under horrifying conditions using rail freight cars, in which many died before they reached their destination. Concentration camps also existed in Germany itself, and while not specifically designed for systematic extermination, many concentration camp prisoners died because of harsh conditions or were executed.

Die Kristallnacht, also known as die Reichskristallnacht (literally Imperial Crystal Night), die Pogromnacht and in English as the Night of Broken Glass, was a massive nationwide pogrom in Germany and Austria on the night of November 9, 1938 (including the early hours of the following day). It was directed at Jewish citizens throughout the country and portended the events of the Holocaust.

Hitlers rise to power

The Great Depression of the early 1930's resulted in the economic and political collapse of the Weimar Republic, Germany's post-World War I experiment in democracy. Adolf Hitler demonstrated his political skill in taking advantage of the opportunity provided by the depression. He developed his Nazi Party into a mass movement and used a combination of his popular support and behind-the-scenes intrigue to propel himself into power. Once he gained office, Hitler moved with ruthless determination to crush his opponents and establish his totalitarian dictatorship. Furthermore, National Socialism showed how a modern "civilized" country could fall to fascism as well as Communism. It created virtual certainty of war in Europe owing to misjudgment of the situation by opponents. Third, it demonstrated that a modern dictatorship is hard to wipe out without war. Owing to his attack on the Soviet Union, Hitler's Germany pushed America and Britain into an alliance with Stalin. Finally, by Antisemitism culminating in Holocaust, National Socialism highlighted its own genocide policies while reinvigorating Zionism.

Hitler Launches the War, September 1939

Hitler ordered the annexation of Austria and the Sudetenland in 1938. Hitler's army invaded Poland on September 1, 1939, sparking France and England to declare war on Germany. A Blitzkrieg (lightning war) of German tanks and infantry swept through most of Western Europe as nation after nation fell to the German war machine.

In 1941, Hitler ignored a non-aggression pact he had signed with the Soviet Union in August 1939. Several early victories after the invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, were reversed with crushing defeats at Moscow (December 1941) and Stalingrad (winter, 1942-43). The United States entered the war in December 1941. By 1944, the Allies invaded occupied Europe at Normandy Beach on the French coast, German cities were being destroyed by bombing, and Italy, Germany's major ally under the leadership of Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini, had fallen.

Monday, May 08, 2006

Anne Frank stuff

The Convention on the Rights of the Child is the first legally binding international instrument to incorporate the full range of human rightscivil, cultural, economic, political and social rights. In 1989, world leaders decided that children needed a special convention just for them because people under 18 years old often need special care and protection that adults do not. The leaders also wanted to make sure that the world recognized that children have human rights too.

The Convention sets out these rights in 54 articles and two Optional Protocols. It spells out the basic human rights that children everywhere have: the right to survival; to develop to the fullest; to protection from harmful influences, abuse and exploitation; and to participate fully in family, cultural and social life. The four core principles of the Convention are non-discrimination; devotion to the best interests of the child; the right to life, survival and development; and respect for the views of the child. Every right spelled out in the Convention is inherent to the human dignity and harmonious development of every child. The Convention protects children's rights by setting standards in health care; education; and legal, civil and social services.

By agreeing to undertake the obligations of the Convention (by ratifying or acceding to it), national governments have committed themselves to protecting and ensuring children's rights and they have agreed to hold themselves accountable for this commitment before the international community. States parties to the Convention are obliged to develop and undertake all actions and policies in the light of the best interests of the child.

The four core principles of the Convention are non-discrimination; devotion to the best interests of the child; the right to life, survival and development; and respect for the views of the child.

These rights were taken away from Anne, Margot and Peter, as they were the the target of discrimination, the discrimination of the Nazis against the Jewish. The prosection of these Jewish people resulted in the development of these children being affected, as spending two or three years, locked away, fearing for your life, is not the way a child, or even anyone, should live. Also, the right to survival and development was taken away from them, as if they did not hide, they would die, but their development would suffer. However if they did not hide, eventually they would be found. In the end, after all that Anne, Margot and Peter went through, they were found and murdered, which is the ultimate violation of the rights of a child.


Germany invaded Holland on May 10th 1940. The invasion, based on blitzkrieg, was swift and devastating. Holland surrendered just six days later as her military had been unable to cope with the speed of blitzkrieg. Fear was also great - Rotterdam had been severely damaged by bombing. Could the same happen to Amsterdam? The Hague?

Rotterdam destroyed by German bombing

German bombers attack Holland at 03.55 on May 10th. The target was Waalhaven airfield to the south of Rotterdam. One hour later, a battalion of paratroopers was dropped onto the airfield. Dutch troops based in Waalhaven put up fierce resistance but it was in vain. As with all early blitzkrieg attacks, the Germans had the element of surprise. While Waalhaven was being taken - a perfect base for the Luftwaffe to use - more paratroopers landed at Dordrecht, ten miles to the south-east of Waalhaven. Their task was to capture a vital bridge in the town. Such a prize would greatly assist the Germans ability to move vehicles in their assault on Holland.

As a result of the waterways that dissect Holland, small naval craft played a part in the attempts to stop the invasion. They had been reasonably successful but only delayed the inevitable. However, their perceived success persuaded the Commander-in Chief of the Royal Netherlands Navy, Vice-Admiral Fürstner, that more ships should be sent to the inland waterways to attack the Germans. To this end the destroyer 'Van Galen' was sent up the Nieuwe Waterweg - and became an easy target for German bombers. The narrow waterways ended any chance the destroyer had of changing her course - she was essentially stuck in the Nieuwe Waterweg. Though the 'Van Galen' did not receive a direct hit, many near misses had done much damage to the ship and she limped into Merwedeharbour incapable of continuing the fight. Though the journey of the 'Van Galen' had been futile, it typified the attempts by the Dutch to fight off the enemy.

The Dutch Air Force did the same. The airfield at Waalhaven was attacked four times by the Dutch (after it had fallen to the Germans) and many German planes were lost. But, despite their bravery, it was only inevitable that the Germans would be victorious. By the end of May 10th, the Germans had captured Waalhaven airbase and the vital bridge at Dordrecht. The southern sector of Rotterdam had been occupied and the Germans were in the perfect position to attack the heart of Holland's most important commercial centre. Waalhaven was used to bring in German troops - this was achieved by 250 Junkers 52 transport planes bringing in troops.

Holland was an irritation in the great scheme of the attack on France. The sooner the Germans could take out Holland, the sooner they could concentrate all their resources on France. For this reason, they wanted to shock the politicians of Holland into surrendering. Rotterdam was the pay the price for this. The Germans decided to launch a ferocious attack on Rotterdam that would have such an impact, that the government of Holland would initiate a surrender.

On May 14th, the attack on Rotterdam started. The Germans used the excuse for such an attack that British troops had landed by the Maas River, thus endangering German troops based in the area. No such landing had taken place by the British. The attack started at 13.30 and within five hours, the Germans entered the centre of Rotterdam. There were 30,000 civilian casualties.

Over the next two days, the Germans conquered the rest of Holland. However, they did meet with resistance especially at the Ypenburg and Ockenburg air bases. At Ypenburg, 11 German transport planes were shot down out of a total of 13. Such was the ferocity of the defenders at Ockenburg, that German transport planes landed on the soft sand dunes that were near to the air base.

Despite all their heroics, the Dutch Air Force lost 62 planes out of 125 on May 10th alone. Despite such losses, they continued attacking the Germans and inflicting damage up until Holland surrendered. For their valour, the Dutch Air Force was awarded the Militaire Willemforce - the Dutch equivalent of the Victoria Cross.

The threat to bomb Utrecht, persuaded the Dutch government to surrender. On May 14th, a message was sent out to all Dutch forces to lay down their arms. Commanders were ordered to stop fighting and to destroy all ammunition. Skirmishes continued until May 16th.

+ couple images.

Thursday, May 04, 2006


-Decide time and date

--Breakfast lunch or dinner
--Which day of the week, convenience etc.

--what type of food, ie. italian chinese etc.

-obtain ingredients

-cook and serve meal

Tuesday, May 02, 2006

Sd Chapter 4

1. When we solve a problem, there are three steps we should follow. The first is to understand the problem, the second is to find a solution to the problem and the last is to test the solution. One of the methods we can use to understand the problem is to draw up a(n) IPO chart which lists the inputs required to produce the wanted outputs as well as the processes required.

2. The purpose of an IPO chart is to help understand the processes and data interactions within the system. An IPO chart is used to describe the data elements which will enter the system, the processes that will occur and the data elements that leave the system.

3. Input: Weight, $2
Processes: Conversion of weight into cost, $2 plus each kilogram or part
Output: Postage of the parcel.

4 A barcode is read and compared with a master file. The name of the item and the cost are displayed. Additionally, the transaction file is updated with this information. (For example, the item may be taken from the list of stock items held.)

5 The due date is input from the borrower’s file. If the date is more than 14 days ago, a fine of 50 cents is levied and the borrower is stopped from borrowing any more books.

7. Input: Hours worked, rate of pay
Processes: Calculate pay via hours of worked times rate of pay
Output: Gross pay.